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Bulgaria’s Stance in The Cannabis Regulation

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Bulgaria, a Southeastern European country, has now legally approved the cultivation of cannabis.  However, the country still heavily stigmatizes the substance. Under the Bulgarian law, THC and even CBD is not subject to monitoring and regulation.

Under the Bulgarian narcotic Substances and precursor control act, cannabis for even industrial purposes is not legal. This is an implementation of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. On the contrary, the act allows the cultivation of the industrial hemp that has THC less than 0.2 percent.

The secondary legislation of Bulgaria and the act states that registered farmers who work in legal premises and are devoid of criminal history can cultivate hemp. This is applicable for those farmers that have not been involved in cases of production and dealing of illegal drugs in the past.

Farmers need legal permission to cultivate hemp

Farmers will need a permit to legally cultivate industrial hemp in the European country. To get the permit, they will have to submit one sample form. This will be an application to the agricultural, food and forestry ministry that will include a vivid court record. Moreover, it will include a declaration that the applicant will not separate or process hemp parts.

All members belonging to the management of this matter would then forward the records and declarations to higher authorities.

A committee has the responsibility to decide whether to issue the permit or to waive the declaration and the records. They have a time of three months to give the final decision. The permit holds validity for up to three years. Although, the whole procedure is free of cost, it is a crime in Bulgaria.

Is THC legal in Bulgaria?

However, the psychoactive compound THC and its variants are narcotic substances under the act. The act classifies these substances under the list of controlled substances in Bulgaria.

These items are known as preparations under the definition of narcotics according to the act. According to the Bulgarian law, these preparations come under the same category as narcotic substances. Therefore, same rules from the police, customs and authorities apply to them as they apply to narcotics. The higher authorities can confiscate any preparation that involves THC as an ingredient, a product, a catalyst or a storage material.

Legal gap and cannabis growth

The rarity of a least permissible amount of the ‘preparation’ is a legal gap. Moreover, it creates a potential risk for all CBD products under sale in the Bulgarian law. This also applies to the products solely containing CBD. It is not possible to rule out traces of the psychoactive compound from these products.

Furthermore, the Bulgarian law states the processing of stem and seed of cannabis to be lawful. The resulting product is useful in making fiber, fodder and for farming purposes. However, the authorities think of leaves and flowers of the plant as a source of THC. Ultimately, this leads to a confusion in the lawmakers in Bulgaria.

Black markets import CBD products into Bulgaria and sell them. This has caused a confusion in farmers as CBD is unable to be produced in Bulgaria. Therefore, it calls for a reform in the lawmaking agenda.

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A rare disease that leaves “Stranger Things” star with no collar bones

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The star actor of the popular show “Stranger things” on Netflix has alone raised awareness about a rare genetic condition called cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), also known as cleidocranial dysostosis. The 17 years old actor, Gaten Matarazzo, is one of the stars of the show playing the role of Dustin Henderson. He was born with CCD.

CCD is a very rare condition that mainly affects bone and teeth development. In this condition, the collar bones are either absent or poorly developed. Their shoulders are sloppy and narrow. Therefore, the individual can bring his shoulders closer to each other in front of the body.

Among the dental abnormalities, CCD causes a delay in primary or baby teeth loss and appearance of secondary or adult teeth as well as misalignment of jaws and unusually-shaped teeth.

The other symptoms of CCD abnormal curvature of the spine, broad thumbs and short fingers, short forearms, a wide and short skull, prominent forehead and others. The symptoms vary among individuals, even within the same family. CCD develops due to mutations in the RUNX gene. This gene codes for proteins involved in the development of bones, cartilage, and teeth.

The writers added the condition in the script. The character of Matarazzo referred to the condition in the very first episode. Later, he got dentures. The actor has already discussed it in several tv talk shows.

Dustin, the character of Matarazzo, fights against the bullies by making the statement “I have told you a million times. My teeth are coming in. It is called cleidocranial dysplasia” in one of the episodes of the show.

Read more- Global Alliance for Cannabis Commerce announces GACC Certified™ testing

Dustin shared the photos of his treatment including surgeries to spread awareness regarding CCD and decreasing the sense of shame from people suffering from it.

Researchers from Oklahoma State University, Tulsa stated that after this exposure, the Google searches regarding CCD have sharply increased by over 94%.

After the premiere of the 3rd season of Stranger Things in July 2019, an informative page reported about a 125-fold increase in views.

For CCD, there is no complete cure. The supportive treatments include the management of individual symptoms including the provision of calcium and vitamin D for promoting bone development ad strength and dental care, as these individuals are usually osteopenic.

According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders, CCD is a very rare genetic condition with a birth prevalence of 1 in a million. In medical literature, only 1000 cases of this condition are reported.

The study published in the journal of JAMA Otolaryngology-Head and Neck analyzed data from Google searches and trends as well as CCD-related organizations after each season of Stranger Things.

Also read– A Novel Way to Diagnose an Early Stage Cancer

Researchers reported that after each season, they found a tremendous spike in searches related to CCD above the expected trend. They showed that there was approximately 11.2% and 12.9% increase in Google searches for CCD after season 1 and 2 respectively. However, the highest spike was observed after the 3rd season, with an increase of 94.4% in related Google searches.

The authors of the study wrote that raising awareness has contributed to increasing funding for researches, early diagnosis, increasing treatment choices, reducing the sense of isolation among affected individuals and improving the quality of life for them.

Dustin recently shared the photos of his treatment including surgeries to spread awareness regarding CCD and decreasing the sense of shame from people suffering from it.

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The Deadly Coronavirus Takes 250 lives in China, Thousands of Others Infected 

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The coronavirus is a highly contagious pneumonia-causing illness that infects the respiratory tract and responsible for several deaths in China. But now the virus spreads globally.

The current estimates tell that its death toll has crossed more than 250 people in China and many other countries are also reporting coronavirus infections. That’s the reason countries have started pulling out their residents from Chinese cities. Coronavirus has infected more People than severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

The World Health Organization ( WHO)  convoked its panel to estimate whether the Coronavirus is a global emergency. The committee has advised that it may be not the right time to make an announcement. As per to latest news there is an increment in reported cases and deaths. Most of the deaths are in Hubei Province.

Indian Health Ministry states that a local student of Wuhan was observed infected with the virus when the student returned home from Wuhan. However, the health instructor of the Philippine confirmed a woman to be safe from Virus who also traveled from Wuhan.

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Some other reports find that the only 9 persons had symptoms of cough and fever from a total of 210 people, who were transferred from China to Tokyo. Europeans countries arranged flights to bring back  Europeans. The flights brought 350 Europeans and 195 Americans to their countries. All the evacuees were observed and checked. Other countries are also making efforts to get out there citizens.

The member of the World Health Organization ( WHO), Maria Van Kerkhove speaks about the condition concerning the new virus in a media talk. The airlines have discontinued their services in China and attempts continued to discover the treatment. The South Koreans protested to urge their government officials to evacuate the seven hundred south Koreans from China.

The official Xinhua News Agency reports that the Chinese authorities are trying to fulfill the basic needs of people living in hot-spot areas. Because these areas are facing shortages in daily necessities and food. It is estimated that Wuhan city f China ensures the supply of rice, cooking oil, pork, vegetables, and eggs for the next fifteen days.

The deputy director of market supervision from the National Post, Hou Yanbo requests people not to order food or any other thing from online or home delivery business other than the daily life necessities. The Chinese authorities are trying to keep people at their homes. The foreigners living in Wuhan city can become a cause of virus spread in other countries if they allowed leaving to their homelands.

The emergencies chief of WHO, Michael Ryan, finds that China has taken extraordinary measures to face an extraordinary challenge.

Read more- First Pneumonia Related Death Reported in China

The scientists have given a rough estimate of the fatality rate seems that many virus-infected cases are missed. The death rate due to virus is estimated 2 percent in Ryan as 99 percent cases of virus-infected are estimated in China. The Chinese authorities have asked all the people who traveled from or to the Wuhan city to report to health authorities. And reports show that a person can be infectious after 14 days of leaving Wuhan.

The measures taken by China in response to coronavirus are praiseworthy as many lives will be safe due to taking some measures in time. The SARS lead to 800 people deaths in the whole world due to delayed response.

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Dangerous Effects of Cannabis During Pregnancy Explained by New Research

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Cannabis is a derivative of Cannabis sativa that affects the normal functioning of the brain and impairs motor coordination leading to hallucinating effect. This new study suggests that cannabis exposure has real-time devastating effects on the fetus and placental development during the gestation period in pregnancy.

The principal constituent in cannabis is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the researchers at Western University and Queens University find that regular exposure to THC has a great effect on the development of the placenta and fetus during gestation. Since recreational cannabis has been legalized in Canada, the effects of cannabis during pregnancy are beginning to be perceived.

This study published in Nature’s Scientific Reports and it is available online.

Researchers used a rat model and human placental cells to show that regular exposure to THC during pregnancy has a great impact on not only the development of the vital organs of the fetus but also on the gene expression that is extremely important for the proper functioning of the placenta.

Read more- First Pneumonia Related Death Reported in China

The researchers practically find an 8 percent deduction in birth weight and diminished growth of brain and liver by more than 20 percent during gestation in a rat model due to the regular exposure to a low-dose of THC that copies the daily use of cannabis.

An associate professor, Daniel B. Hardy at Westerns Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry and co-author on the paper suggests that the use of cannabis during pregnancy is highly linked with low birth weight babies.

Clinical data is hard to analyze because it is perplexed by other factors. The study is a definite way that supports that THC has a direct influence on the growth of the placenta and fetus.

Oxygen and nutrients cross the placenta into the developing fetus for nourishment and the research team characterizes how THC prevents oxygen and nutrients from crossing the placenta.

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A decrease in a glucose transporter called GLUT-1 is caused by the exposure to THC that was found by studying the placental cells of humans. This shows that THC is stopping the transfer of key nutrient glucose through the placenta, from mother to the fetus. A reduction in placental vasculature was also found in the rat model and infers a reduced flow of blood from the mother to the fetus.

In the researcher’s opinion the restricted growth they observed in the offspring is likely caused by both of these factors and find that there are recently no proper guidelines from Health Canada on the use of cannabis during the gestation period.

To prevent morning sickness, for anxiety, depression or social issues up to one in five women are using cannabis during pregnancy according to some studies.

A Ph.D.,  Associate Professor, David Natale at Queens finds in Canada and many states of the US the use of marijuana has been legalized, but its use during gestation period has not been studied well. There are very real devastating risks associated with the regular exposure of cannabis during pregnancy.

 

 

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