Coronavirus outbreak has changed the demands of the citizens of Amsterdam. According to them, they are tired of cannabis, sex and mass tourism. In fact, they are taking Coronavirus as an opportunity to impose the long-desired controls and demand the betterment of mass tourism in the city.
Life Before Coronavirus Outbreak In Amsterdam
Before the begining of COVID-19 pandemic, there was a calamity over mass tourism in Amsterdam. It’s inhabitants felt detached due to accumulation of riotous travellers, scattering garbage in parks and in malls. Additionally, there used to be an uproar and public disorder in the historical city center.
Effects Of The Pandemic
Generally, there used to be 55,000 visitors per day in the pleasing, 500-year-old Dutch city. As a result of the pandemic, the number of these visitors drastically dropped to zero.
At the moment, as most of the Europe, the Netherlands is reopening after months of lock downs and restrictions, many people in Amsterdam wants to ensure that the city says “good riddance to mass tourism.” They further want to return to the numbers of visitors as they used to be in 2014, before the circumstances get out of control from low-fare flights, Airbnb and economical trips.
According to reports, half-clothed sex workers in the windows of bawdy houses in small lanes like Stoofsteeg in the red-light district were no more seen. So did the amassment of tourists who used to stare at them.
Coffee shops on historical plazas such as Rembrandtplein and Leidseplein used to sell cannabis, hence, persuading thousands of travellers to visit them. However, the number of these visitors gradually reduced.
In previous years, Amsterdam undertook various steps in order to manage both the quantity and quality of its visitors. So this is not the first time when Amsterdam is trying to instigate sustainable tourism. Also, this further preserves employment.
Nonetheless, as The Guardian simplifies: “Most hotel groups, tour operators and national tourism authorities – whatever their stated commitment to sustainable tourism – had continue to prioritize the economies of scale that inevitably lead to more tourists paying less money and heaping more pressure on those same assets.”
On the whole, the 2020 prediction for international travel before the outburst of the pandemic was an increase between 3 percent to 4 percent.
Amsterdam has one of the extortionate tourist taxes since last year in Europe. Per person per night stay costs €3 along with 7 percent of the price of a room. Airbnb also increased its tariff by 10 percent per night. For cruise passengers, the charges were €8 per person. However, over-tourism had not weekened the numbers in any drastic way.
Amsterdam has only 870,000 inhabitants. According to official analysis, it enthrals more than 19 million overnight visitors per year.
In order to minimize the number of visitors, forbid the establishment of new hotels and levy an increase in tourist taxes, a post-pandemic petition has been signed by 27,000 citizens. This will provoke a city council refrendum to have a discussion regarding the future of tourism in the city.
However, the major aim of the citizens is to limit the number of visitors to 12 million overnight per year.
This might create anxiety or stress among businessman’s who only focus on tourists. But, this proposes a welcome break to all the citizens who felt detached from their city to a great extent.
The proposal wants to change the mind-set that tourists are not visiting an entertainment park but a bustling city with a diverse neighborhood economy.
This proposal includes:
- Reduce the number of coffee shops selling marijuana along with a clean up of the red light district,
- Foreign visitors cannot buy drugs,
- No extensions in current hotels and a complete or limited ban on holiday rentals,
- New increase of the tourist tax and re-evaluating it after every half of the year,
- Using extra revenues from the tax to withstand tourism issues and further improve the quality of life of the citizens.
According to a survey by Amsterdam’s research, information and statistics office, around 42 percent of the British visitors refused to return to Amsterdam quite often if they cannot buy cannabis over there.
Whether the reduction in the number of visitors due to COVID-19 pandemic has numerous economic consequences for local businesses, the residents on the other hand are appreciating and adoring this break.
An Overview of Marijuana Laws in Arizona
Arizona, also known as The Grand Canyon State, is famous for more than its iconic natural wonder. Advocates of marijuana legalization have long associated the state with its stringent policies towards the drug. This is mainly because marijuana laws in Arizona have not only been extremely conservative, but also archaic, and racist in every way one can imagine.
This year, however, in a historic move to reform its policies, Arizona had put up the question of marijuana legalization on the November 2020 election ballots. The initiative, known as Proposition 207, was drafted to legalize the recreational usage of the drug in the state. Propitiously, it won with an overwhelming majority, getting the approval of around 60.03% of Arizona residents.
This was a huge jump in the percentage of legalization supporters since 2016. The closest Arizona ever got to legalizing marijuana in its jurisdiction was in that same year, where Proposition 205 was put before the public. To the dismay of its advocates, the initiative failed even after securing 48.7% of votes in favor of it. Its opponents defeated the initiative with a mere 2.6% majority, standing at 51.3%.
Overview of transition in Arizona’s Marijuana Laws
Arizona’s marijuana laws have undergone a lot of changes, failed legalization attempts, and revisions. Here is an overview of when each of these policies was introduced and what each of them meant for Arizonians:
Proposition 200 – 1996
The Drug Medicalization, Prevention, and Control Act was implemented in Arizona in 1996. Under the terms of this initiative, certified physicians could prescribe cannabis or any other Schedule 1 drug to patients with certain medical conditions. It was approved with the support of 65% of Arizona residents.
Within a few months of its approval, however, state legislators rejected the proposition and tried to repeal it. “It seems to me, we’re saying to the voters that you’re smart when you vote for us, but we don’t trust you when you vote on other important issues,” state Sen. Pete Rios said in April of 1997 while voicing his disapproval of the changes put forward by legislators.
In response to this, voters used their right to a popular referendum in 1998. Appallingly, Proposition 300 was not successful in attaining much at all. All it could manage to do was to create a significant conflict with federal law due to its language composition which ultimately led to its rejection.
Proposition 203 – 2002 and 2010
Through Proposition 203 advocates in Arizona tried to legalize recreational as well as medicinal usage of marijuana for the first time in their history. It was first introduced in the state in 2002 and proposed criminal justice reforms as well as a scheme to establish a state-run medical cannabis system.
In addition to this, it also proposed decriminalizing possession of up to 2 ounces of marijuana. It also proposed some revisions of conviction criteria for non-violent drug offenses. The initiative met the same fate as its preceding reforms and did not get approved by the law enforcement community of Arizona.
The proposition was placed before local residents once again in November of 2010. This time it succeeded in getting medicine usage of marijuana legalized with the support of 50% of voters.
Proposition 205 – 2016
After its medicinal use was legalized in 2010, Proposition 205 sought to legalize the recreational use of marijuana once again in 2016. As mentioned earlier, the initiative was defeated. Despite of expected tax revenues, and potential increases in educational funding opponents of the initiative were convinced that the social and economic impacts of legalization would have outweighed its benefits.
The Victory of Proposition 207
Proposition 207, also known as the Smart and Safe Marijuana Act is a long-awaited victory of the cannabis sector in Arizona. It has marked the end of an era of uncompromising policies that have bred racism, police brutality, and unfair incarceration.
Under the new laws, past marijuana related minor crimes can be petitioned to get an expungement. The proposed laws are expected to be put into effect beginning July of 2021.
Here’s what they have in store for Arizonians:
Adults 21 or older will be allowed to possess up to 1 ounce of marijuana. Possessing 5 grams of its concentrate is also made permissible. Moreover, medical marijuana patients will be allowed to possess up to 2.5 ounces over a period of two weeks and grow 12 plants for personal use.
Under Proposition 207, marijuana users are allowed to grow 6 plants for personal use at their homes. However, it is important for the cultivation to be in an enclosed area, away from public view. All users who hold the ADHS are allowed to cultivate their plants.
Smoking marijuana in public is still not legal in marijuana. Using it on the premises of a dispensary can lead to license cancellation. In addition, driving under influence can lead to severe consequences and will be punishable through fines, arrests or license suspension.
Overview of Marijuana Laws in New Mexico
New Mexico, also known as the Land of Enchantment, is a state located in the southwestern region of the USA. It was 47th to join the union in 1912, after which it became the fifth-largest state in the U.S.A area wise. When marijuana was slammed with a legal prohibition during the 1920s in the country, New Mexico followed suit and banned it in 1923. Since then, marijuana laws in the state have undergone quite a few significant changes.
Here is an overview of marijuana laws in New Mexico and their current legal standing in the region.
Marijuana usage before the legal ban
Up until the early 1800s, marijuana was pretty much a legal drug within the United States. Although its recreational usage was not a very common idea, it was widely used for medical purposes. In addition to this, it was used to make everyday products like ropes, clothes, canvas, sacks, and many other things.
It might be hard to believe today, but in 1619, not growing hemp was considered illegal in areas like Virginia, Massachusetts, and even Connecticut. This was because the plant was considered extremely resourceful. Later on in the 1700s, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, and North Carolina were granted special licenses to promote hemp cultivation and production.
Surprisingly enough, many political personalities of the United States had also cultivated hemp in the past. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin are among them.
Reefer Madness overshadows benefits of Marijuana Plant
Starting in 1906, cannabis was typecasted as a poisonous drug. Its out-and-out prohibitions began in the 1920s following the Mexican Revolution.
Most marijuana advocates believe that the legal ban had more to do with racism than its psychoactive effects. According to Tommy Chong, “Marijuana prohibition has been a racial law right from the get-go. It followed the path of the Chinese opium law. Britain actually almost ruined China with the opium trade and so America, when they wanted to demonize a race of people, they would outlaw their habits – that’s what prohibition was all about. Prohibition was just basically a racist law.”
Therefore in an attempt to stigmatize Mexican’marihuana’ users, the drug was officially outlawed state by state in the U.S. Reefer madness took over the news, movies, and television after which medicinal benefits of the plant were forgotten. The propaganda against it was very strong and successfully associated with violent behavior, rape, and even murder.
New Mexico Moves Ahead towards Reforming Marijuana Laws
In 1978, New Mexico became the first-ever state to acknowledge the medicinal value of marijuana after decades of prohibitions.
The move was strongly motivated by the efforts of Lynn Pierson, a cancer patient who died during his struggle to gain legal access to medical marijuana. Having endured a lot of suffering during the course of his chemotherapy sessions, he found solace in marijuana. “A few puffs of pot took nausea away. And there was hardly any vomiting. Then I got really hungry. Hell, I ate so much I actually gained some weight,” he said.
It was due to his efforts that the Controlled Substances Therapeutic Research Act was passed with an overwhelming majority. Governor Jerry Apocada signed it as an ’emergency legislation’, setting the bill as a model for at least 30 more states for upcoming years.
Lynn and Erin Compassionate Use Act
In 2007, honoring the memories of Lynn Pierson and Erin Armstrong (another cancer patient and advocate of marijuana legalization), medical marijuana was legalized in New Mexico.
The legislation was entitled ‘ The Lynn and Erin Compassionate Use Act’ and established a system of marijuana usage under the regulations of NMDOH. The system aimed to provide patients legal access to the Medical Cannabis Program of the state. It made adults aged 18 or above qualifiable to receive medical marijuana if they had certain ailments. A list of 28 medical conditions was prepared that included eligible medical conditions. Some of them include:
- Alzheimer’s Disease
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Cachexia, or wasting syndrome
- Cervical dystonia
- Crohn’s disease
- Epilepsy and seizure disorders
- Hepatitis C
Later in 2018, the state’s biggest city, Albuquerque, decriminalized the possession of 1 ounce (28 grams) of marijuana. Any amount above it was a punishable offense causing a fine of $25. These marijuana laws were further revised in 2019, whereby possessing up to half an ounce (14 grams) led to a $50 fine instead of jail time. Patients are allowed to possess up to 8 ounces (277 grams) of marijuana over a three month period.
As of now, patients can only obtain medicinal marijuana from state-licensed non-profit producers. Unauthorized distributors, users, or sellers are liable to face criminal prosecutions and penalties.
Here’s Why Tommy Chong is an Active Advocate for Cannabis
Tommy Chong is a well-known face around the world for more than one reason. He is an actor, writer, director, musician, comedian, and most prominently a very famous cannabis advocate. His legalization efforts have continued for a good part of his life and were expressed intently through his music, films, and other creative works.
Starring alongside Richard Cheech in the Grammy Award-winning comedy flick ‘Cheech & Chong‘, Tommy Chang has been quite vocal about his love for marijuana. His stand-up shows with Richard Chee were quite impactful during their time, speaking volumes about their support for the cannabis movement. They were so successful that most of their shows were sold out in the 1970s – a time when the ‘war on drugs’ was at its peak in the entire world.
What Does Tommy Chong Believe About Cannabis Criminalization?
Hailing from immigrant families himself, Chong sternly believes that the war on drugs has its roots in xenophobia.
According to him, “Marijuana prohibition has been a racial law right from the get-go. It followed the path of the Chinese opium law. Britain actually almost ruined China with the opium trade and so America, when they wanted to demonize a race of people, they would outlaw their habits – that’s what prohibition was all about. Prohibition was just basically a racist law.”
If we are to weigh his words and match them with reality, disagreeing with him would be hard. Here’s why:
Up until the early 1800s, there were no federal restrictions on the usage, retail, or possession of marijuana in the U.S. Hemp fiber derived from it was used to make products like clothes, paper, and rope. In addition to this, medicinal usage of the drug was also very common. It might sound ironic, but at the time of its prohibition, tinctures containing cannabis traces were present in probably every medicinal cabinet in the United States. It was used to treat various diseases like malaria, stomach ache and even ‘absentmindedness’.
Why then was cannabis criminalized and banned?
Just as Tommy Chong pointed out, cannabis was prohibited in an attempt to degrade and ‘demonize’ Mexican immigrants.
The early 1900s was a time when thousands of Mexican immigrants began seeking refuge in the United States. While smoking marijuana recreationally was not very common in the U.S, Mexican immigrants were quite fond of this practice.
This was seen as a great opportunity to instill ‘reefer madness’ among the people. Politicians were quick to substitute the term ‘cannabis’ with ‘marihuana’ to make it sound more authentically Mexican in order to create more prejudice. It worked of course. Newspapers were soon labeling Mexican cannabis use as a ‘marijuana menace’. In the words of Harry J. Anslinger, first Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, marijuana caused “insanity, criminality, and death”.
Here is a quote from a New York Times story from 1927:
“A widow and her four children have been driven insane by eating the Marihuana plant, according to doctors, who say that there is no hope of saving the children’s lives and that the mother will be insane for the rest of her life,”
Going Back to the Future With Cannabis
With the increasing recognition of the therapeutic benefits of cannabis and its derivatives, laws surrounding it are slowly relaxing. The racism that has long haunted the drug is also vanishing slowly.
Tommy Chong compares this with the phenomena of going back to the future. He says that with more acceptance of the drug, society is going back to the beginning days. It is returning to days where there was no stigma attached to the drug.
According to him, one of the major challenges now faced by the industry is its federal prohibition. Businesses are unable to obtain finances for the fear of being prosecuted. This has led to a major part of the industry operating on cash transactions creating problems for them as well as regulators. Depending upon cash means that cannabis dispensaries are at the forefront of robberies and burglaries when civil unrest arises.
Cannabis is equally beneficial for the mind and body
Chong is a firm believer in the therapeutic benefits of cannabis. He has made a mention of its religious sacrament and its soothing impact on the mind and body.
“A lot of sports people that I’ve known are big marijuana advocates because it doesn’t tear you down like alcohol does or make you crazy or addicted like cocaine and heroin. So, marijuana is really the perfect stuff for everything including medicine.”
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