The phase 1 of Moderna Incorporation’s coronavirus vaccine trials have proven successful and have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective against the infection.
Coronavirus started spreading around 9 months ago, however, up till now, no vaccine has been approved by the FDA. Numerous researchers and scientists have been actively working for developing a possible treatment plan and vaccine for the infection.
While some studies focused on using natural products, including cannabis, for the treatment, others have been trying to come up with a perfect combination of chemical compounds to combat the infection. So far, the novel coronavirus has affected 13,691,665 people, with a total of 586,821 deaths.
Moderna Inc. was working on developing a vaccine for the coronavirus infection. The experimental drug has proven effective and safe for human use. It was able to successfully trigger an immune response and production of appropriate antibodies in 45 healthy subjects who volunteered for the early stage trials.
The study was published in New England Journal of Medicine and showed production of antibodies in all subjects. The volunteers who received two shots of the vaccine had a higher number of the antibodies as compared to the previously recovered coronavirus patients.
There were no major side effects. However, some people reported having mild to moderate symptoms of fatigue, muscle aches, chills, headache and pain in the injection area. These were majorly seen in the subjects who received a higher dose of the vaccine.
The volunteers, aged 18 to 55, were divided into 3 groups of 15 subjects each. They got two shots with a gap of 28 days. Group 1 was given 25 micrograms of vaccine, group 2 was given 100 micrograms and group 3, 250 micrograms.
Side effects were seen in 13 members of group 1, 14 of group 2 and all members of group 3. 3 out of the 45 had significantly severe symptoms including a high grade fever, nausea and headache. One of these three subjects was reported to have 103.28 Fahrenheit fever.
Moderna Inc. was the first company to start human trials for the coronavirus vaccine, which began on March 16. This was around 2 months after the DNA sequence of the novel coronavirus was made public.
According to the director of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr Anthony Fauci, any vaccine that produces results similar to the original infection is a “winner”. Hence, the company is greatly please with the results.
Moderna has full support of the US government that has selected it as one of the first corporations to step into large scale human trials. The government also invested around 500 million dollars for the development of the vaccine.
Just after the news surfaced about the successful vaccine, the company’s shares improved by over 15 percent. If proven successful in the more extensive trials, the vaccine can be a big step for the company that has never produced a licensed product.
Moderna’s vaccine, labelled as mRNA 1273, makes use of RNA to trigger the production of antibodies in the human body. RNA is a single stranded nuclease sequence that is responsible for protein production. Once inserted into the body, the vaccine triggers the production of proteins similar to coronavirus. They are then detected as foreign organisms by the body, resulting in an immune response.
Phase 2 trials for the vaccine started in May and phase 3 trials are expected to begin in late July.
Dealing with Insomnia To Overcome Weed Dependency
Cannabis has been the go to drug for ‘locked-down’ people during the pandemic. According to a 2020 survey, a whopping 88% of the participants reported weed use at least once a week. Around 50% of the participants use it on a daily basis.
Other stats from the survey show that around 31% participants feel dependency on it. While 31% participants have some sort of dependency, 27% want to give it up. The problem arises in cases where the drug is in use to induce sleep.
A 2009 study showed that the main cause of cannabis relapse was poor sleeping patterns.
Cannabis As An Energy Booster?
People tend to depend on cannabis for a good night’s sleep. Those who develop a dependency, then have a hard time getting good sleep without its use. People have reported sleepless nights whenever they try to cut their use of cannabis.
For people going through such problems, cannabis actually helps them focus. This is because a lack of it will keep the brain racing at night and it will not be rested for the next day. Deirdre Conroy, the Clinical Director of Behavioral Sleep Medicine at the University of Michigan, thinks that this behavior is typically caused by the withdrawal symptoms from quitting cannabis.
However, if you are looking forward to giving up cannabis, there are some ways you can achieve that.
Confronting Your Problems, The Right Way
Many a times there is some underlying problem that bothers people. They tend to take weed just to distract their minds off of that problem. According to Dr. Conroy, a person must address such an issue straight away. There are better ways of managing mental issues like anxiety and stress than taking weed. These include Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and medication.
It should be kept in mind that seeking professional help is not always going to get you the answers you seek. One should be mindful and must manage themselves in the best possible manner. It is better to step out of one’s damaging cocoon and set targets that will help in managing stress.
There should a clear cut-off point that separates you from your work. To achieve this, avoid working from your bed or even your bedroom. Jot down all of your worries before bed and leave them on a paper instead of taking them to bed with you.
Instant Results Are a Hoax
Don’t expect to just climb into bed and fall asleep instantly after fine-tuning your routine. According to Conroy, it is very much normal to lay awake in bed staring at the ceiling for some time. There should be wind-down time window where phones and other such distractions are stowed away from sight. So basically the redemption starts by avoiding the more obvious addiction, the phone.
Dr Neil Stanley, a sleep expert, also suggests that the room should have minimal distractions and one must avoid anything too stimulating. Dr. Stanley believes one must sacrifice that one hour of Netflix before sleep, which keeps your brain working even after you fall asleep.
Weed Inhibits Nightmares
Cannabis suppresses REM sleep. Discontinuing the use of cannabis can cause REM sleep to rebound and this might lead to some nightmares or really tangled up dreams.
People tend to relapse when they face such episodes of dreams. Long-standing users of cannabis experience even stronger traumatic nightmares when they cut-back on the use of cannabis.
While this is not readily solvable, it can be managed to a certain extent by limiting your exposure to traumatic things.
ALSO READ: Two Faces of Marijuana
There is No One Ring Fits All Approach
The fact remains that addiction and control of it are different for every individual. The best method to deal with insomnia after quitting weed is to analyze what makes you feel content. It might be reading a book, yoga, taking a shower, or even playing with your pet. You have to analyze what helps you get the best sleep and stick to that regimen.
Two Faces of Marijuana
The effects of marijuana on your body depends on the style of consuming it. If you consume it through food and drinks, it takes time to get to your organs. However, when consumed directly in terms of smoking or vaping then it instantly makes its way to the organs and brain of the human body. Hence the way you intake marijuana causes different physical and physiological effects.
Marijuana and its medicinal use
Marijuana has been a stress reliever for many people around the world. People use it for different purposes. Medicinal usage of cannabis is significantly more famous. Chemotherapy is already a very devastating treatment, leaving the patient feeling helpless, vomiting and feeling drained. However, marijuana proves to reduce the effect of nausea and vomiting. Also, it may aid in relief from short-term pain and inflammation in the body.
Long-term use of marijuana may result in withdrawal symptoms that might be a setback for a few people. THC, an active ingredient in marijuana, interferes with tumor growth and inhibits it, as carried in the bloodstream. It also stimulates your hunger resulting in increased appetite, which can help treat cancer and AIDS patients.
ALSO READ: Medical Cannabis – Can It Help Treat Asthma?
High levels of Naphthalene and Acrylamide
A new study has found that smoking weed may have similar impacts on your body as smoking tobacco. According to a study published in a journal in the US, it reports that people who have consumed marijuana only have high levels of naphthalene and acrylamide in their urine and blood samples in comparison to non-smokers.
Naphthalene connects with damage to the liver and damage to neurons. Acrylamide has been associated with cancer and other major health issues. On the other hand, the usage of marijuana is legalizing in many of the states. The report says that Mexico is going to be the third-largest population of the cannabis population. People are using it for recreational use. At times, the dosage is uncontrolled, resulting in drug abuse. The war on drugs is finally about to win, and it seems that during 2021 more states would make cannabis legalized.
Dr Dana Gabuzda, an investigator in immunology and virology, states that marijuana use is on the rise in the US with a growing number of states legalizing it for medicinal and non-medicinal purposes.
Comparison of tobacco smokers and marijuana smokers
Tobacco smokers have high levels of a chemical termed as acrolein in their blood. Acrolein leads to cardiovascular diseases in tobacco smokers, whereas marijuana smokers tend to have low acrolein levels in their blood. Upon burning the sugar present in the tobacco it produces acrolein. Exposure to acrolein can cause issues like respiratory tract infection and congestion. Extremity can cause toxicity followed by inhalation or oral exposure. Cannabis smokers have high levels of naphthalene and acrylamide in their blood and urine samples. Acrylamide is even produced from the burning of vegetables such as potatoes, but in the case of weed smokers, acrylamide is three to five times higher in their blood.
Based on animal studies, US National Toxicology acrylamide contributes to being one of the human carcinogens. Manufacturers of plastics and fibers use acrylonitrile as a component in plastics. According to the World Health Organization, indoor air pollution elevates by cigarette smoking as it is the source of acrylonitrile. Some of the symptoms of poisoning by acrylonitrile are limb weakness, irregular breathing and dizziness. It can also lead to nausea and convulsions. In addition to this, US Environmental has also reported that workers exposed to acrylonitrile have lung cancer.
Study: Most weed smokers don’t understand the risk of tobacco addiction
Cannabis on its own is perhaps one of the best things you could possibly take. Whether it’s ground into your food and cooked, baked into desserts or just inhaled by vape, cannabis is versatile. Many studies throughout the years, looking at the physiologic effects of CBD and THC, report positive findings. CBD oils, for instance, help soothe inflammation and reduce arthritis pains. THC on the other hand is a potent sleep regulator, thanks to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. It’s the opposite of, say, tobacco.
However, when smoked, the story changes for the user. No longer is the intake of cannabis relatively safe and totally healthy. Burning the filter paper releases several carbon compounds, carbon monoxide among them. This gas, when inhaled, poisons the bloodstream since it reacts with hemoglobin. The resultant levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the blood, along with toxic chemicals like hydrogen sulfide, can prove devastating. Unfortunately, it seems that the vast majority of cannabis smokers simply do not register these adverse effects.
A recent study shows that most cannabis smokers think that smoking joints is safer than smoking cigarettes
This past month, an interesting new finding based on a study conducted on United Kingdom adults. The population sample size is quite extensive, with roughly 13000 participants. The study shows that of all the cannabis smokers interviewed, most admitted to mixing tobacco into their joints. Tobacco, added to joints, comes from gutted cigarettes. The participants typically expressed lack of understanding of the health risks tobacco-laced joints pose.
Extrapolating from the data set is not always reliable. However, the researchers noted that their diverse sample size allows them to generalize estimated statistics. Using their own numbers, they calculated that roughly 380000 cannabis smokers in the country mixed in tobacco. The reasons for this varied, from some suggesting convenience and others addiction. Furthermore, the data suggested that over 1.2 million people across the nation smoked cannabis. The alarming discovery of these numbers is serious – especially considering the number of users actively or passively taking in tobacco.
Health experts caution that the increased prevalence of tobacco consumption is the chief concern
Unlike traditional cigarettes, weed joints carry far less tobacco on average. However, the main issue that UK health authorities worry about is the increased exposure to tobacco consumption. While cigarette smokers develop rapid addictions, they grow aware of their drug dependencies quickly. This results in greater social consequence about smoking cigarettes, especially thanks to anti-cigarette government programs. However, in weed’s case the only opposition stems from conservative views on getting high, rather than the nicotine in the tobacco.
Nicotine is a highly addictive chemical compound capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. This makes it highly toxic to neural and cardiac tissue. As a result, nicotine and cotinine (its byproduct) contribute to several health conditions. These include cardiomyopathies, pancreatic cancer, high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. In addition, the other contaminants present in cigarette smoke lead to lung cancer, strokes and respiratory disorders.
In another related study, health authorities in England reportedly accepted evidence that smoking tobacco with cannabis contributed to greater incidences of poor mental health. Incidences of depression, anxiety, insomnia, mood swings and manic disorders were most common in such cases. Note that the study pointed out that taking cannabis and tobacco separately did not cause this effect. Therefore, the next time you make a joint from a gutted cigarette, think twice!
For more on joints, cannabis and health science, stay tuned!
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