Children born to expectant mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy are at a higher risk of developing mental disorders. The results were discovered in a recent study published in JAMA Psychiatry which analysed around 11,489 children for research purposes. The spectrum of disorders included a number of problems like autism, psychotic-like behaviors, and ADHD among many others.
The children were part of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study which is considered as the largest long-term study of brain development and child health in the United States.
Findings of the study
Out of the 11,489 children who were studied, almost 655 were exposed to marijuana during their gestational period. The negative effects were magnified in women who continued using marijuana through out their pregnancy and also while breastfeeding their infants. “Use of cannabis despite knowledge of pregnancy might represent a preexisting and more severe form of cannabis use,” the authors wrote.
Marijuana usage and Mental Disorders
The increased decriminalization and evolving legal acceptance of marijuana is leading to an escalation in its usage rates.
Compounds in marijuana bind to cannabinoid receptors in the brain and induce side-effects like intoxication, euphoria and cognitive delays. This is the main reason for its classification as a Schedule 1 drug at the federal level in the United States. For states where it is considered legal, the medicinal benefits attached to some of its non-psychoactive compounds are valued above the side-effects.
In general, the risks of addiction and other associated side-effects increase with the concentration of THC (psychoactive compound). The negative consequences can be more detrimental if the exposure happens at an earlier developmental age. This is why the incidence of marijuana use and mental disorders is higher for children who get exposed to it in the womb.
According to a research published by U.S Surgeon General Jerome Adams, the concentration of compounds in marijuana have changed overtime. The marijuana available today is much more stronger and THC concentrated as compared to what it was earlier. THC concentration in marijuana crops has increased by three-folds between 1995 and 2014.
In addition, according to his research, marijuana products sold in legal dispensaries may contain THC concentrations ranging between 17.7% to 23.2%. This is separate from the other class of concentrated products that are exclusively designed for recreational use. These products tend to contain between 23.7% to 75.9% concentration levels of THC in them.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse has reported that the usage rates of marijuana had more than doubled between 2002 and 2017 among pregnant women. Most of this use was recreational rather than medicinal in nature. Surprisingly, there are mothers who used marijuana because they considered it safer as compared to prescription medications.
Side-effects of marijuana on fetal development
THC affects the fetal brain via the mother’s bloodstream. It disrupts the mother’s endocannabinoid system, affecting fetal brain development. Outcomes of this early exposure to dangerous levels of THC and leads to anxiety, agitation and psychosis in children.
Some newborns exposed to marijuana have also reportedly experienced withdrawal symptoms including tremors, crying and sleep deprivation. Furthermore, some of the risks during gestation include lower birth weight, preterm labor and increased risk of miscarriages.
In addition to this, studies conducted by Duke University Medical Center have shown a clear link between autism and marijuana. It was a first study to highlight the changes in sperm genes that occur with a man’s cannabis intake. These changes in the sperm of marijuana users have been found to trigger autism in their offspring.
Effect of marijuana exposure later in life of children
According to Dr. Compton there is enough retrospective data to show an association between marijuana usage and the onset of psychotic symptoms. “Adolescent/premorbid marijuana use is not only a risk factor for the later development of primary psychotic disorders (which has been shown in prior studies), but is also a risk factor for an earlier onset of those disorders.”
Can the damage be controlled?
Camille Hoffman, MD, MSCS, is an associate professor of maternal- fetal medicine in University of Colorado School of Medicine. He has conducted a detailed study on the negative effects of marijuana on fetal development. His studies have found that maternal marijuana use begins to negatively impact the fetal brain at an earlier stage in pregnancy. However, some dietary measures can help to curtail these damages. “We also found that eating choline-rich foods or taking choline as a supplement may protect the child from potential harm.”
Recycling Of Tonnes Of Cannabis Containers
Cannabis products formulations in solid, liquid, and smoke-able forms are available in the market for medical and recreational use. Marijuana products are kept under storage conditions set out by the manufacturer.
Cannabis products come in containers of variable sizes and shapes. The material used to prepare containers depends upon the manufacturer’s choice and demand for the stability of marijuana products.
Recycling of containers is occurring for decades to reuse items or process used items into new ones. Doing so reduces pollution and helps to use one material multiple times.
Returning And Recycling Of Cannabis Containers To SDQC
In less than 12 months, about 21 tonnes of empty plastic containers were sent to recycle to the SQDC. SQDC is the company that does the recycling under the name Societe Quebecoise du cannabis. It is a government-owned company.
The company began its recycling package or recovery program in August 2020. Since August, a lot of plastic containers have gone through recovery programs, precisely 2291143 containers.
The use of cannabis products has hugely increased in the market. The number of marijuana containers purchased by consumers is likely to be much more than the number of containers send to SQDC to recycle. There is only a deposit on SQDC beverages included in the RECYCQUEBEC consignment system.
However, there is no deposit on the SQDC containers in the system. Quebecers who do return pot containers do so not for money as they do not get money. They do so to keep containers away from trash.
According to the SDQC, the benefit of returning empty containers is that others materials cannot contaminate cannabis containers. Moreover, doing so ensures that these packaging materials do not end up in the blue boxes. Collecting these empty plastic packaging allows sending a uniform material to businesses that reuse it easily after quick processing.
What Happens To Marijuana Containers After Recycling
The Societe Quebecoise du cannabis signed a partnership with TerraCycle. TerraCycle is a U.S.-based recycling business company. The SQDC sends collected cannabis containers to TerraCycle and other such companies that are in agreement to recycle them.
TerraCycle recycling business company focuses on using the used items to form urban furniture such as park benches, flower boxes, etc. According to some individuals, TerraCycle recycles bags that could have added to pollution or result in a landfill otherwise.
According to the Canadian press, it is uncertain what happens to those containers. It is also unclear how many of such packagings go into and out of the company. No one knows the exact number of plastic packaging required to produce urban furniture. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about other formulations that use this recyclable material. So far, there is no way to find it as the TerraCycle recycling business company does not respond to emails or phone calls as per the Canadian press.
The SQDC, in a Facebook post on a page, announces that they will continue to work to improve the environment. They are working with a team of experts to develop an efficient action plan for cannabis containers and packaging recycling that is eco-friendlier. They are looking forward to going further with their environmental efforts.
Some people are criticizing SDQC for its products that are considered over-packaged or are environmentally unsustainable. Individuals complain that they have to wait in line to return the cannabis containers, and it would be much better if SQDC places outdoor bins in front of SQDC branches. Some individuals, while returning multiple marijuana containers, feel embarrassed.
SQDC replied to these complaints and said that they are aware of the critical remarks. However, they cannot do much about it as they are to abide by the law. Placing outdoor bins cannot ensure control over the material. Outdoor recycling bins can increase the risk of accidental cannabis consumption in children and youth.
Pot Legal In NYC But Where To Buy Recreational Cannabis In New York
Pot products, including recreational cannabis and medical marijuana products, are legal in New York. The lawmakers have successfully approved the weed legalization and decriminalization bill. However, the administration working and policies to implement the bill is taking way too much time.
The disagreements among legislators and the inability to develop a plan to implement the legislation delays implementation of the new bill. Due to delays in proceeding procedures, things have become difficult for almost everyone.
Cannabis Legalization Program Of New York – A Train To Nowhere
Governor Andrew Cuomo and state legislatures did approve cannabis legalization and decriminalization bill in March this year. However, there has not been much progress. According to critics, the Governor is the real buzzkill on the issue.
Critics elaborate that Cuomo is yet to nominate an executive director for his new Office of Cannabis Management. He also has to name appointees to the Cannabis Control Board. The Marijuana Taxation and Regulation Act were passed months ago, yet the official is working slowly to appoint and name some people for the office to begin further proceedings.
The Governor is delaying the procedure because the Senate members have not yet passed Cuomo’s proposed MTA legislation. Richard Azzopardi is the spokesperson of Gov. Andrew Cuomo. According to his spokesperson, there are multiple unfinished businesses in Senate. However, they will submit their nominees and names for designated positions. The spokesperson also mentioned that they hope Senate passes MTA legislation and let nominees selected by the governor implement order regarding cannabis.
Politicians Against Delay In Implementation Of Cannabis Legalization Policy In New York
Mike Murphy is the spokesman for Senate Leader Andrea Stewart Cousins. According to Murphy, MTA approval and nominating nominees are separate issues with no interlinkage. Thus, these matters need separate resolutions, and it is best not to try to relate them.
According to State Senator Diane Savino, after observing the current situation, it is evident that the cannabis legalistic program is likely to delay for much a longer time. She added that the public and officials of New York are in between a rock and a solid hard place.
Moreover, apart from the politicians, the public is angry and frustrated at the delay of matters. Residents of the state are unable to understand the logic or reasoning behind the pending situation.
According to Diane Savino, legislatures or lawmakers should walk and sign a joint agreement at the time regarding the subject to settle things as quickly as possible.
The politician further added that nothing can happen concerning marijuana sale policy and license issuance to begin a legal business. At least until regulators develop a set of ground rules to conduct cannabis business, following legal practices is impossible.
What Is More About Marijuana Policy In New York State?
According to Diane Savino, no operation involving marijuana is practicable unless legislators set some ground rules. Licenses to individuals to begin a legal sale, cultivation, processing, manufacturing, or distribution of marijuana is unapprovable before settling some limitations. Moreover, it is inappropriate to approve licenses without designing a regulatory system.
ALSO READ: Cannabis Dealer Stopped By Police
Governor needs to select three people to begin the formation of the five-member Cannabis Control Board. The nominees will first get approval from the Senate to offer their services. The selection of the other two members falls on the legislatures. One member of the five-member committee will be selected by lawmakers from the Assembly and one from the Senate.
The selection of nominees and their approval is the next step after passing the bill, and it took almost a year for completion. Delaying the process cause trouble for the state and the public who had to go to borders to purchase cannabis legally from neighboring states like Massachusetts.
Unless the regulatory and administrative procedures are incomplete, the state is unable to generate revenue. Pending them will only slow down the development process of the cannabis business field and delay experiencing possible benefits from its tax revenue.
Originally covered on: NYPost
Cannabis Products Association With Perceived Risks And Availability
Cannabis products are in use for medical and recreational purposes in more than thirty states of the United States. Some of these states allow medical marijuana products, while others allow pot for all purposes, including adult and medical purposes.
Multiple studies have been conducted relating to cannabis, including pot effects and associations with other factors. Perceived risks and availability links with marijuana use disorders. Moreover, research findings can demonstrate how perceived risks can alter pot use disorders in individuals.
According to a new study at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, perceptions of the risks and availability of cannabis influence the risk of pot use. This influence is more than the perceived risk and effect of perceived availability alone.
The research discovers that individuals that perceive cannabis as a low-risk and available drug are more likely to use cannabis. There are some other findings too. Researchers discovered that individuals with perceptions that cannabis is high-risk and unavailable drug report fewer drug use cases. You can find research discoveries in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.
More About Research Regarding Perceived Risks And Availability Effects On Cannabis Use
Natalie Levy is a Doctoral Student of the Department of Epidemiology at Columbia Mailman School and the first author of the study. According to this research, perception of cannabis risk affects its use, frequency of use, and pot use disorders. Moreover, the availability of cannabis does influence the chances of drug use, its frequency, and marijuana use disorders.
However, the findings show that cannabis risks and availability together influence pot use more frequently. The research focused on the evolution of collective perceptions of marijuana risk and availability from 2002 to 2018.
Data of 949,285 participants helped in doing the investigation or survey studies. These participants are from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Researchers found that over the years from 2002 to 2018, more people perceive marijuana as a low-risk drug. The prevalence of individuals who perceive pot as a low-risk drug doubled in these years. However, the influence of the change in availability perception was comparatively less evident.
The joined perceptions influence was evident in these years. The percentage of individuals with the perception of cannabis as low-risk and available increased from 17% to 36% from 2002 to 2018, respectively. The number of individuals who perceive marijuana as a high-risk and available or unavailable drug decreases in these years. The percentage of people who perceive pot as high-risk and available is 26 percent. Meanwhile, the percentage of individuals that consider weed as high-risk and unavailable is twenty-seven percent.
Marijuana Perception Effects
According to findings, individuals who regard cannabis as low-risk have reported and are likely to report six times more about pot use. Individuals with the perception of cannabis being available are five times more likely to use pot.
However, joined perceptions increase the chances of pot use. Individuals with joined perceptions are twenty-two times more likely to use marijuana. That is, people who perceive cannabis as a low-risk and available drug are more than 22 times more likely to use pot than people with the opposite perception.
Marijuana perceptions vary from males to females. A large percentage of the male population views marijuana as a low-risk, more available drug when compared to females. Researchers noted variations in pot perceptions in different age groups of each gender. According to the study, individuals of age 12-17 years show minimal cannabis perception differences.
Silvia Martins, MD, Ph.D., is an associate professor of epidemiology at the Columbia Mailman School. She is the director of the Substance Use Epidemiology Unit of the Department of Epidemiology. She is also the senior author of the study. According to Martins, their research will open a new pathway for searching specific hypotheses. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of exploring joint perceived risks and availability on cannabis use.
Originally covered on: news-medical
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