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New Technology to Predict Cancer Recurrence in Melanoma Patients

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The beginning of melanoma takes place when a small pigmented spot appears on the skin. By removing the lesion, a primary melanoma can be treated but it has a tendency of reoccurrence and can spread throughout the body. A new study showed that the likelihood of cancer can be predicted after the removal of the lesion.

Despite all medical advancements, the analysis of lesion his performed in the same old way. Generally, molecular diagnostic labs have many advances for the detection of other forms of cancer but for the skin lesion cancer the way of diagnosis is very simple. The diagnosis is based on the thickness of the melanoma and microscopic features.

A patient with thinner melanomas is considered to be normal and the T stage from 1 to 4 is assigned. The complete details of this study are published in Nature Cancer.

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The researchers from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in collaboration with international colleagues showed a new technique about the reoccurrence and spread of melanomas. It leverages the sequences of DNA for predicting the possible factors involved in the reoccurrence and spread of melanomas.

Thomas Kupper who is the chairperson of the department of dermatology at the Brigham that there were no treatments available for metastatic melanoma 10 years ago. But now it is possible to treat the patients who have metastatic melanoma and these treatments can be given at the primary stage of the disease. It is important to have a clear idea about the patient’s progress report after giving the new immunotherapy treatments, so we can modify the treatment.

There are immune checkpoint inhibitors that can reinitiate the immune response through T cell against the cancer cells. These inhibitors have changed the results and options for the patients in which cancer has spread throughout the body. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can start dramatic responses such as long-term remission in the period of curing a patient.

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Kupper and colleagues wanted to know about some measurable features of T cells. These features are used to check the predictions of the reoccurrence of melanoma in the removed primary melanoma and disease-free patients. Scientists study T2, T2, and T4 primary melanoma as the T1 are rarely metastasized melanoma.

They also face difficulty in finding the sample that was enough for results because skin lesion surgeries are usually performed at private clinics and ambulatory clinics. So, the concentration of the specimen is not available in the hospitals. For resolving this issue and for sharing the resources researchers collaborated with colleagues of the Melanoma Institute of Australia and the Zealand university Hospital in Denmark. The sample size for the analysis contains more than 300 patients from different areas.

The samples of primary melanoma patients with progress have been compared with those patients whose primary melanoma did not show any progress. For analyzing the T cell range of tumors, Adaptive Biotechnologies performed high throughput DNA sequencing. It was found that out of all identified variables the T cell fraction (TCFr) was an independent and strong predictor for the patients’ progress condition.

Patients with the same lesion thickness were more at the risk of developing metastatic disease. If the TCFr value is lower than 20 % in the patients, then they are more at the risk of disease progression. On the other hand, if the TCFr value is more than 20% then the risk of disease progression is low in patients.

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 The test used in this study is not available at the commercial level for clinical use. It is only used for research purposes. The authors said that the study is retrospective because it took the sample and data of patients that are already available. While the prospective study is that in which data for outcomes is not known and further tests are needed for validation.

Kupper and colleagues imagine that if a test could bring to the clinics then it will improve the patient care and strengthen the results. The test is elegant, simple and quantitative. These types of tests will help us in the future to modify the treatments according to the situation. If the patients have high TCFr then we will benefit him with checkpoint inhibitor therapy. If the value is low in patients, then more interventions are needed.

 

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Cannabis

News Update: Four Children Targeted Due to Cannabis-Laced Sweets

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cannabis infused sweets

Cannabis gummies and sweets containing THC are available in the market, but these edibles are for people above the age of 18 or 21. The age limit to consume cannabis containing gummies and other sweets vary from state to state and from country to country.

The rules and regulations relating to cannabis-laced sweets differ depending upon the government’s decision regarding the use of controlled substances in edibles. Moreover, in some areas, the sale of cannabis gummies is permitted but with age limitations. Unfortunately, the incidence of children getting sick after taking marijuana, THC, or cannabinol-containing sweets have occurred in England and Ireland.

Consumption of younger kids can be injurious to their health, and it may lead to hospitalization, being in a coma. In severe conditions, excessive consumption of these marijuana-containing sweets can result in death, reported Food Safety News.

The Incident Related to Cannabis Consumption by Children 

In England, four young children have to be admitted to hospital when their condition becomes worse after supposedly consuming cannabis containing sweets or gummies. One of the four children aged 12-years-old was discharged on the first of May, but the other three children were to be released after a day. Once they have been monitored for a day or overnight, they were likely to be released.

Three children, two of age twelve years old ( a girl and a boy) and one of age thirteen years old who was a boy when eating jelly sweets their body reacted vigorously and they begin to vomit uncontrollably. Furthermore, these children experience episodes of unconsciousness as they become conscious and unconscious abruptly.

How Did these Sweets Cause Severe Sickness in Reported Children?

There have been different incidents with a similar situation where children have experienced sudden reactions after eating sweets or jellies. Police in Surrey is trying their best to find the root cause of such severe reactions. These children do experience vomiting and remain unconscious for some time, but fortunately, they did not develop any long-term disease. Neither did they experience any ill-effects, and authorities are eager to find the root cause and source of these sweets.

ALSO READ: Complete Breakdown of CBD for Children: A Go-To for Parents

Another incident of such reactions also occurs when children consume jelly apple rings that appear as green jelly circles. Similarly, some pupils in South London also need quick treatment care and hospitalization due to reactions that develop after the consumption of gummies containing cannabis. According to Detective Sgt. Lisa Betchley, police are determined to find the source or where children are getting such sweets. There is some evidence that children purchased these sweets or gummies online.

She further added that these children were lucky to survive as they received help from two nearby medical students when the children developed reactions to sweets. Medical students have been assisting the South East Ambulance Service.

They have also been aiding hospital staff in various treatment and repaid responses. The sale of such types of sweets containing cannabis is illegal. Some products are on the market in the finest packaging, but people shall avoid using them as they are illegal in the UK.

Sickness Reactions Occur in Ireland

Individuals that possess cannabis-containing products for sale or usage shall keep them within storage conditions. It is essential to keep these items out of reach of children as they can be detrimental to their health.

Cannabis containing edibles is not for teenagers and children. The substance is considered under controlled drug. Seeing an increase in the number of such reactions in children after consuming cannabis-containing sweets, the FSAI issued warnings. A Food Safety Authority of Ireland warning highlights the potentially dangerous aspects of edible THC products.

ALSO READ: Here’s Everything You Need To Know About THC And CBD

According to Pamela Byrne, sweets and jellies containing active ingredients of the marijuana plant are denoting sold through online means. Those involved in such activities do not care about the safety of children and the consequences of their activities.

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Variety Of Marijuana Strains Yield Different Health Impacts 

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Marijuana Strains

Marijuana is a plant that has many beneficial medical uses. Moreover, researchers are discovering more and more about the effectiveness of cannabis in treating various psychological and pathological conditions. The plant has been gaining popularity for its health effects. 

Marijuana is effective in reducing pain and anxiety. It is also applicable for elevating the quality of sleep, and recently it is famous for being an aphrodisiac. The impact of various strains of cannabis is different.

Marijuana strains are classified as indica, Sativa, and hybrid. However, the classification is considered controversial. Moreover, each variant-strain of cannabis generates a specific effect. But personal preferences also determine what individuals will use and how it will affect them. 

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Are There Any Marijuana Genital-specific Strains?

There is no evidence of the existence of marijuana strains that can result in genital-specific arousal. However, cannabis is usable for treating and helping to ease certain penis-specific situations. Moreover, individuals with anxiety associated with erectile dysfunction can take the anxiety-reducing strain of cannabis.

According to a 2017 study, marijuana use has a positive link with sexual frequency. Moreover, according to some studies, cannabis users have sex more often. Furthermore, there is a possibility that cannabis leads to increased libido levels. 

However, some research studies disagree with cannabis having a positive association with sex. According to a 2011 literature review, frequent marijuana use can cause erectile dysfunction. There is another study of 2010 that links daily use of weed to the inability to achieve orgasm. 

Thus, further research is essential to understand the true-effect of marijuana on sexual health. However, without sufficient evidence, people are still using cannabis to enjoy sex, boost their libido, and deal with other undesirable symptoms like pain or depression.

Various strains of cannabis generate different effects on different individuals. So far, there is no guarantee of which cannabis-strain will be beneficial for your sexual health. Moreover, it is wiser and safer to use marijuana strains with the recommendation of doctors and under their supervision. 

Strains For Arousal 

The two strains most frequently used for enhancing libido are Sativa-dominant hybrid (Sweeties) and hybrid (OG Kush). Sweeties contain 22 percent THC, while OG Kush contains 18 percent THC. 

Sweeties produce euphoria and are usually used for relieving stress, anxiety, and low libido. OG Kush has a reputation for generating happy feelings. However, the usage of OG Kush makes consumers a little sleepy. Thus, consuming it in small doses is safe and effective.

Treating Depression With Cannabis Strains

Depression can lead to multiple conditions including erectile dysfunction, lethargy, fatigue, and low sex drive. Many individuals use Strawberry Diesel and Jillybean to treat depression. Both are hybrid marijuana strains.

Jillybean and Strawberry Diesel strains contain zero CBD, but both have 16 percent THC each. Moreover, jellybean is energizing, produces euphoria, is a mood elevator, and perfect for combating depression. However, Strawberry Diesel does have a euphoric, mood uplifting effect, but it is not too energizing. Moreover, it is not sleep-inducing and thus is useable during day time.

ALSO READ: Cannabis Greenhouse Effect – Areas With More Emission

Getting Rid Of Anxiety And Stress With Aid Of Marijuana Strains

Stress and anxiety are both common libido killers. Moreover, stressed individuals are unable to enjoy and have fun. Furthermore, stress can lead individuals to exhaustion, brain fog, and irritability. It also decreases the potential for sexual pleasure. However, the use of marijuana strains will enable the consumer to reduce stress levels and soothe anxiety. 

Sherbet and Locktite are hybrid strains of marijuana containing 18 percent THC capable of producing euphoria. For arousal, individuals use Locktite, and Sherbet is effective for erogenous play. 

Moreover, if individuals desire to use more energetic strains, they can use Durban Poison and Harlequin. Both have Sativa-strain of marijuana, but Durban Poison contains 17% THC, and Harlequin contains 5% THC.

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Cannabis Greenhouse Effect – Areas With More Emission

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Cannabis Indoor cultivation

Cannabis can cause climate change that can affect the environment and life of human beings, reports The Conversation. The extent to which marijuana contributes to environmental alterations depends upon its cultivation technique and location.

The marijuana industry is expanding, and lawmakers are working on legalizing its cultivation, possession, and other activities across the United States. The cultivation of cannabis can occur indoor and outdoor. However, the effects of cultivating marijuana indoors are different from its cultivation in open outdoor fields.

According to a recent study, cultivating cannabis indoors results in the production of large amounts of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, the impact of these gasses depends upon the location where cannabis indoor cultivation occurs.

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Energy For Cannabis Indoor Cultivation

Cultivating cannabis indoors requires a controlled environment and source of energy, light, water, and other suitable conditions. A lot of electricity is utilized in producing sufficient light for the cultivation and growth of marijuana indoors. 

Moreover, cannabis cultivation at an optimal growth rate requires a lot of energy. Energy is essential for producing a comfortable growing environment for the marijuana plant. Furthermore, air conditioners and heaters are essentially required to keep the temperatures within a suitable range. 

The growth and cultivation of plants require the presence of a certain percentage of carbon dioxide. Thus, cannabis producers pump carbon dioxide into the indoor marijuana cultivating unit. However, apart from the beneficial effect in the growth of cannabis, carbon dioxide contributes to 11% to 25% of greenhouse gas emissions in facilities. 

Producers require a proper ventilation system that allows clean, fresh air at a suitable temperature and humidity levels to enter the indoor cultivating unit of cannabis. Availability of air is essential for growth but cleaning it and correcting its temperature and humidity is possible with an energy-intensive process.

Intensive energy and other production requirements increase greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, in some regions, the emission of greenhouse gasses is higher than in other localities. 

Areas With More And Less Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

Regions with milder climates require less heating and air conditioning. Moreover, their electric grids use more clean energy. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions in such regions are less than in other areas.

According to Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, and industry data, growing pot cannabis indoors results in greater emissions of greenhouse gasses in the Mountain West, Midwest, Alaska, and Hawaii in comparison with Pacific and Atlantic coasts. 

Moreover, cannabis in southern California has the lowest emissions, and eastern Oahu in Hawaii has the highest greenhouse gas emission. Greenhouse gas emissions in Southern California are at 143 pounds of carbon dioxide, equivalent per ounce of dried marijuana. However, 324 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent per ounce emission occurs at Oahu in Hawaii. Moreover, this emission is equivalent to burning 16 gallons of gasoline

Greenhouse Emissions From Cannabis And Its Impact

The emission rate affects the environment, but authorities, cultivators, and industrialists do not consider the environmental impact. There is an urgent need to take measures regarding the greenhouse effect of cannabis cultivation to control the possibly worse situation. 

ALSO READ: Denver’s Cannabis Ordinance Will Jeopardize Hard Earned Public Health And Safety

There are old warehouses that use outdated equipment that emit more greenhouse gasses as they are less energy efficient. Furthermore, there is a need for developing new better techniques for growing high-quality cannabis with energy-efficient methods. 

Unknown variations in the cultivation process and growing methods make it hard to design effective policies that can enable producers to limit the emission of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, one serving of THC, roughly 10mg dried-flower, yields more greenhouse gasses emission than a serving of beer, wine, spirits, coffee, cigarettes.

Furthermore, it is better to cultivate and grow cannabis outdoors in open fields with a suitable environment as it will lower the emission of greenhouse gasses. 

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