Initiative 190 and an Overview of Montana’s marijuana laws
Montanans have nicknamed their state the “Treasure State” because of its rich production of precious metals like copper, gold, and silver. Starting from January 2021 however, the state will also be associated with a revolutionary legislature known as Initiative 190.
Initiative 190 also known as I-190, is a legislative reform that was drafted with the intent to legalize the recreational usage of marijuana in Montana. Lawmakers in the state put the proposal on the November 2020 ballots for taking the voter’s verdict on this issue.
To the relief of legalization advocates, the state saw significant support from the public leading to the success of Initiative 190 after securing 56.90% of favorable votes. In contrast to this, the percentage of voters opposing it stood at 43.10% – representing the ‘former’ conservative mindset of the state’s legislatures.
Before we move on to the details of legislative reforms that will be put into effect through Initiative 190, let’s take a look at the history of the state’s drug laws.
Overview of Marijuana Laws in Montana
Marijuana was first made illegal in Montana in 1929 following the federal ban of the drug in the US. The Health Committee meeting where this decision was taken is infamous for Dr. Fred Flusher’s racist and ridiculing remarks towards Mexican immigrants.
A local newspaper quoted him saying, “When some beet field peon takes a few rares of this stuff… he thinks he has just been elected president of Mexico so he starts to execute all his political enemies.”
The meeting was described as ‘great fun’ by representatives who took the decision-making process. After this, xenophobic laws were drilled into the state’s legislature.
1987 Dangerous Drug Tax Act and the Kurths
In 1985, the Kurth family of Montana resorted to the cultivation and sale of cannabis in an attempt to pay off their debts. Their cattle business was failing so the money from their cannabis ‘side-business’ was really helpful to make ends meet.
However, it was not long after this that drug traffickers got word of their success and the family was soon threatened with extortion and physical abuse. Later, their business was reported, ultimately leading to their arrests, penalties, and property foreclosures.
Under Montana’s Dangerous Drug Act of 1987, a tax of $865000 was supposed to be levied on the plants seized from the Kurth’s farm. The case was significant because it raised questions over whether this tax amount was justified as the family had already been slammed with drug charges and paid related penalities.
Montana Medical Marijuana Act – Medicinal Legalization begins in 2004
Montana adopted its first medical marijuana law in 2004 and called it I 148. The measure was approved after 62% of Montana residents voted in favor of it.
Since then, the growth of marijuana patients had been modest up until 2009. This also corresponded to the subtle relaxations in the federal law towards marijuana.
House Bill 161 – 2011
Between the years 2009 to 2011, the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Montana saw a significant increase. While they stood at 2000 in March of 2009, their volume increased to 31000 by May of 2011.
In response to this, House Bill 161 was introduced to repeal the reforms put into effect by I-148. However, due to the veto of Governor Brian Schweitzer against the bill, state representatives had to make do by putting strong restrictions on the medical program. Initiative I-148 was not repealed.
In November of 2016, Initiative 182 was passed through the approval of 58% of voters. It had proposed relaxations in the possession limits of marijuana and added PTSD to the list of eligible conditions for marijuana treatment.
Marijuana Enforcement Tracking Regulation and Compliance System was put into effect in May of 2017. It signed the mandatory testing and seed to sale tracking of marijuana into law. Also, a tax limit of 4% was imposed on medical marijuana, which was later revised to 2% in 2018.
Recreational Use Gets Legalized in 2020
As mentioned earlier, Initiative 190 marked the legalization of adult-use marijuana in Montana. Here is an overview of the reforms that this initiative will introduce in the state:
Adults 21 or older will be allowed to possess up to an ounce of marijuana. Possession of 8 grams of its concentrate is also permissible. Registered cardholders can possess up to four mature plants, four seedlings and a legally permitted quantity of marijuana if they have not named a service provider. If a provider is named by the cardholder, possession of one ounce of medical marijuna is allowed.
It is compulsory uponcardholders to inform related authorities about the number of plants or seedlings about their possession.
Public consumption of medical or recreational marijuana is prohibited under all circumstances. They can only be consumed on private property, away from public view.
Driving, flying an aircraft to boating under influence can lead to severe penalities and repercussions.
5 Best CBD for Relieving Pet Anxiety in 2021
CBD-containing items are trending as their use and demand in the market are increasing. People are using CBD for pet anxiety and to improve the overall health of pets. Cannabidiol has a calming effect in humans, and similarly, the active ingredients found in cannabis are beneficial in reducing anxiety in dogs and cats.
Pet owners observed that CBD can reduce anxiety issues. Particularly dogs that are suffering from cancer, arthritis, and pain. Some anecdotal evidence indicates items containing cannabinoids can become helpful in treating anxious dogs and cats.
Pets become anxious in certain conditions that can lead them to behave restlessly. Sometimes dogs suffer anxiety due to loud noises, change in living conditions, traveling, visiting the vet, and public gatherings. The formulation for dogs and cats is formulated carefully not to contain THC of more than 0.3%, as it is a psychoactive component of the cannabis plant.
CBD items designed to reduce pet anxiety are effective in achieving this goal. These items help in making pets feel more relaxed, calm, and comfortable. They usually contain no THC, items that contain this psychoactive substance have a concentration of less than 0.3%. There are multiple cannabidiol-containing items in the market for pets. Of those, here is a list of the best CBDs for pet anxiety.
Top 5 CBD for Overcoming Pet Anxiety
- Nuleaf Naturals Full Spectrum CBD Pet Oil
- Holistapet CBD Hemp Extract For Pets
- Pet hemp Company CBD Superfood Dog Treats For Anxiety And Stress Relief
- Pet Hemp Company CBD Oil for Dogs and Cats
- CBDistillery Relief + Relax CBD Oil – Super Anxious Pet
1) Nuleaf Naturals Full Spectrum CBD Pet Oil
CBD Pet Oil by NuLeaf Naturals is the best choice for big dogs with anxiety-related problems. The company has been providing hemp-related products on a worldwide scale since 2014 and maintains the highest quality standards. Their full-spectrum CBD is effective, safe to use, and fairly priced.
NuLeaf Naturals CBD oil is free from THC as it contains 0.0 percent of the psychoactive substance. The product formulation involves the use of legal hemp from Colorado. Hemp plants cultivated in the sunny fields of the state are for ensuring finial products can be manufactured by natural methods.
The company gathers plenty of hemps to obtain organic hemp extract. The formula for the CBD product is designed keeping in view the best interest of pets.
NuLeaf Naturals CBD pet oil is available in three dosing sizes: 300mg CBD, 900mg CBD, and 1800mg CBD. It contains whole-plant extract, cannabinoids, terpenes, and produces an entourage effect. The product is shipped within 2 to 3 days of order placement across the United States.
It is for cats, dogs, horses, and other pets. Many pets can benefit from the CBD oil by NuLeaf Naturals. Feeding the product to a pet is also easy, you can directly feed it to the mouth of your pet, add it into its food or water.
- Organic, natural ingredients
- 100% hemp extract
- Best for reducing anxiety in big dogs
- Suitable for cats, dogs, horses, and other pets
- Pesticides free, herbicides and insecticides free
- Contains cannabinoids, terpenes, and organic healthy substances
- Made in the USA
- Third lab testing verification
- CO2 Extraction method
- Easy administration
- 3mg CBD per drop of product
- Available in three sizes: 300mg CBD, 900mg CBD and 1800 CBD
- Available in three packaging packs: single pack, pack of two, and pack of six
- Quick shipping within the USA
- Product shipping to more than forty countries across the world
- 30 days 100% money-back guarantee
- No flavoring options
2) Holistapet Broad Spectrum CBD Hemp Extract For Pets
The CBD Hemp extract for pets by Holistapet is a full spectrum CBD-containing formulation. It is free from THC, preservatives, pesticides, additives, and contaminants. The product is one of the best broad-spectrum CBD items for cats and dogs.
The suitable dose for your pet depends upon the weight and condition. Anxious dogs and cats, after consuming Hoilstapet CBD hemp extract feel calm, relaxed, and happy.
Administering the product to your pet before going to a public gathering or place with loud noises helps in maintaining your pet calm and compose. Stress relating anxiety issues are less likely to arise in pets taking the CBD hemp extract.
You can administer the CBD oil anytime with a meal, water, or directly. Administering it to your pet is as easy as it does not have taste, and you can mix it with your pet’s edible items.
The product helps mitagate separation anxiety, stressful conditions, hyperactivity to changes in surroundings, and aggressive behavior. It also reduces car travel anxiety, keeps the pet calm during storms, and prevents your pet from barking or moving restlessly from one place to another continuously.
It comes with a customer convenient packing. The item contains a dropper that helps in administering the correct dose to the pet. Holistapet CBD oil is available for pets as small as under 20 pounds and as large as over 160 pounds.
The product is available in various sizes to facilitate pets of various weights. Available sizes are: 150mg CBD, 300mg CBD, 600mg CBD, 1200mg CBD, and 3000mg CBD. The concentration in a bottle of each size differs.
- 100% natural, non-GMOs,
- 0.0% THC
- No animal was hurt during product formulation.
- Available in five sizes: 150mg CBD, 300mg CBD, 600mg CBD, 1200mg CBD, 3000mg CBD
- Available for pets with a weight under 20 pounds to weight over 160 pounds
- Available at a subscription price
- The USA manufactured
- Preservatives free
- Free of herbicides, additives, colorants, flavorings
- Third-party laboratory testing
- CO2 extraction to obtain hemp extract
- One bottle of 150mg CBD is 15ml and contains 450 drops per bottle. Each drop from this bottle contains 0.33mg of cannabinoids
- A bottle of 300mg CBD is of size 15ml and contains 450 drops per bottle. Each drop contains 0.66mg CBD
- A bottle of 600mg CBD can hold 30ml of oil. each bottle of this size contains 900 drops, and each drop contains 0.66mg CBD
- Bottle of size 1200mg and 3000mg CBD has capacity to hold 30ml and 60ml, respectively. A drop from 1200mg CBD contains 1.33mg CBD and a droplet form 3000mg contains 1.66mg.
- Suitable for cats and dogs
- Fast shipping
- Thirty days money-back guarantee
- Induce behavioral change in pets
- Reduce anxiousness and keep your pet calm
- No flavorings available
3) Pet hemp Company CBD Super-food Dog Treats For Anxiety And Stress Relief
CBD super-food dog treats are specifically designed for dogs dealing with anxiety and stress. The product contains organic chamomile, L-Theanine, and hemp extract. The formulation is ideal for alleviating the anxiety of dogs and their agitation.
It also contains hemp seed powder that reduces stress and has immense nutritional value. Cinnamon, molasses, organic applesauce, coconut oil, and peanut butter are also present in the CBD dog treats.
Pets suffering from anxiety also exhibit abnormal behavior or negative behavioral patterns. The L-Theanine present in the Superfood dog treats mitigates such alterations in behavior.
Pet owners shall notice the things that upset or cause their dog to undergo stress. Dog owners can avoid such conditions, that lead their dog to anxiety, or they can administer their pet the CBD treats to reduce hyperactivity.
The Pet hemp company CBD dog treats have other benefits: This product improves dog mobility, reduces muscle spasms, decreases stress and anxiety. The product is available in three different sizes for dogs of different sizes. These sizes are 150mg, 300mg and 600mg. Dogs less than 20 pounds are recommended to take 150mg CBD dog treat. 300mg size is for dogs with a weight between 20 and 60 pounds. The size of 600mg is for dogs with a weight over 60 pounds.
These dog treats are palatable and come in two flavors: yummy green apple and peanut butter flavor. The cost of one-time purchasing of a 300mg pack is $34.95. These CBD dog treats for anxiety are available at a 25 percent subscription price.
- Relieves stress
- 100% organic, natural ingredients
- Available in two flavors: green apple, and peanut butter
- Reduces anxiety
- Available in three concentrations: 5mg CBD per treat, 10mg CBD and 20mg CBD per treat
- Available in three different doses for dogs with different weights. Sizes are: 150mg, 300mg and 600mg
- Thirty days money-back assurance
- Quick ground shipping
- Third-party testing verification
- Satisfactory customer reviews
- Cause dogs to drink more water as they experience mouth dryness
Shop Pet Hemp Company Super Food
4) Pet Hemp Company CBD Oil for Dogs and Cats
Pet Hemp Company CBD oil product is for all types of dogs and cats. The item is designed to facilitate pet owners in reducing their pet anxiety and stress. If you own multiple pets including both cats and dogs, you will need not worry about their CBD supplement intake and health as the Pet hemp company CBD oil will fulfill the necessities.
With this one product, you will be able to satisfy the CBD requirement of both species of cats and dogs without any hassle. It is free from any psychoactive ingredients as it is safe to use and lab verify its safety profile. The item is suitable for dogs, cats, and other pets.
It is available in variable sizes and makes it convenient for pet-owners to give CBD oil to their pet. The five available sizes are 150mg, 300mg, 600mg, 1200mg and 3000mg. The number of servings per bottle and concentration of cannabinoids vary depending upon the size.
- Zero concentration of THC = no chance of getting high
- Organic hemp used for manufacturing
- Natural ingredients
- Dogs, cats, and other pets can easily use it
- Easy to administer
- Come with a dropper
- No additives
- No preservatives
- Easy to feed to pet as it is tasteless
- The USA manufactured
- Available in different concentrations for pets with varying weights from less than 20 pounds to more than 160 pounds
- Reasonable pricing
- 30-day money-back assurance
- Free and quick ground shipping
- Sometimes out of stock due to high demand
5) CBDistillery Relief + Relax CBD Oil – Super Anxious Pet
During the early stages of anxiety CBD products of low concentrations are effective in reducing anxiety and relieving stress. But for super anxious pets, CBDitillery Relief + Relax CBD oil is effective. This product has a high concentration of cannabinoids and contains ingredients that affect the endocannabinoid system in reducing anxiety. It is best for daily use. You can administer it by mixing it with water, milk, and the food of your pet. Serving it once or twice a day is beneficial in achieving the desired outcome. It is available at a subscription price at a discount.
The 1000mg CBD size of the product in 30ml bottle capacity gives 33mg of cannabinoids per serving. It is not suitable for pregnant pets as the product contains a minute concentration of delta-9 THC. According to Californian law can cause reproductive harm.
- All-natural ingredients including hemp seed oil, coconut oil, olive oil, cannabinoids, terpenes, etc
- Suitable for super anxious pets
- CO2 extraction
- Applicable on skin
- Produces calming effect
- Contain a rare amount of delta-9 THC that is dangerous for the reproductive system
All CBD for pet anxiety items mentioned above is the best available products on the market. For young pets, NuLeaf Naturals CBD pet oil is the most suitable choice. Pets with weights varying from less than 20 to over 160 can choose CBD full-spectrum hemp oil from Holistapet and Pet Hemp company.
Both companies have five doses and sizes formulated for pets with varying weights. If your dog does not want CBD oil, you can administer CBD super-food dog treats manufactured by the Pet Hemp Company. If you desire to share your CBD oil with your pet, you can choose CBDistillery CBD oil, but it is not for pregnant species.
Luxembourg: The First European Country To Legalize Marijuana
Many of the states of the USA have legalized recreational and medicinal marijuana, but in Europe, the laws are strict. Medicinal cannabis is limitedly legal. But Luxembourg will soon become the first country to decriminalize cannabis.
On Friday, the government of Luxembourg announced via a statement that it is legal to grow and use cannabis. As per the new legislation, individuals above 18 in the county will have permission to consume marijuana. Moreover, they can grow four cannabis plants.
One household can cultivate only four plants. With the new law in action, the county would become the only county that permits the production and use of the drug without any limitations.
What Changes Can Occur By Altering The Legislation Regarding Marijuana
Cannabis will become available. Its manufacturing, development, sale, and consumption will no longer be illegal. The decriminalization of marijuana will drastically reduce the rate of the current fine.
Currently, any person possessing three grams of cannabis can be subject to a pay fine between $29 and $581. Previously, individuals were to pay for drug possession, and amerce can vary from $291 to $2910.
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The legislation of Luxembourg does permit marijuana use and cultivation but publically using the drug is still illegal. The new law allows the trading of cannabis seeds. Moreover, there are no limitations on the concentration or quantity of THC in the seeds undergoing the trading process. Tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive compound of weed that can make people high.
The change in the law regarding marijuana will enable the government to clear out cannabis relating drug crimes. Another aim of making the alterations in legislation is to clamp down the drugs trade in the black market. Under the new law, Ministers will be regulating the currently illegal marijuana market.
The new cannabis policy has the support of the government. But to make it official, a vote of parliament is essential. After the voting of parliament in favor, the new proposal will get confirmation.
Chances Of Relaxation In Cannabis Law Across Europe
Luxembourg is a beautiful county with political and communal stability. People are close to their culture, and it is the best place to do business. It has the highest living standards that make it worth living.
It has a population of over 600,000 individuals and is the first to move on the forefront in decriminalizing marijuana. Overall the European continent is moving towards relaxation of cannabis laws.
In a referendum in 2022, Italy will decide about its stand on the legalization of cannabis. Whether Italy will decriminalize pot or not depends upon the number of people in favor. Once the campaign groups become able to gather 500000 required signatures to force a vote, marijuana will become legal.
So far, Italian law permits the consumption of cannabis. Thus, no fine or punishment is inflicted upon its use. Usage of medical cannabis is also legal under the law of Italy. But, purchasing, selling, and cultivating weed on a large scale is against the legislation. Drug dealers can end up in prison for ten years if found guilty.
All the actions that can lead to imprisonment under current Italian law will become legal. But only when the people vote to legalize marijuana in the referendum. After the majority voted in favor, the sale, purchase, and cultivation of cannabis will become legal.
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Other European countries are also considering changing their laws about the use, sale, purchase, cultivation, manufacturing, and distribution of marijuana. Rules and regulations regarding cannabis involving activities are likely to change in the near two to three years.
Also Covered on: CNN
NY Cannabis Board Permits Residential Medical Marijuana Production
The cannabis legalization and decriminalization bill are in practice in NY, rules for medical marijuana are set. The Cannabis Board is responsible for resolving matters involving medical and recreational weed. We are working efficiently to design regulations and procedures. The firm is determined to ensure cannabis-involved activities operate lawfully within the state.
The New York Cannabis board on Thursday issued rules to allow medical marijuana users to cultivate or produce these plants at home. Caregivers also have permission to grow medical hemp plants for their use at their residence.
NY Cannabis Board Proposal
A final decision regarding the cultivation of medical marijuana is yet to occur. Doing so will enable individuals to become self-sufficient in medical cannabis. According to the proposal of the board, they can grow several plants for personal use at home.
ALSO READ: Luxembourg: The First County To Legalize Marijuana
For now, the proposal is open for discussion to the public, and people can comment on it for a period of sixty days. The proposal permits the growth of up to six medical marijuana plants in residential space. After the closing of the commentary period of 60 days, the regulation will take effect. By the end of this period, the cannabis board will finalize the ordinance in its official language.
Since 2014, medical marijuana, despite being legal, was not available in the market. It was also not easy to access items that consisted of constituents of the cannabis plant.
People used to visit medical dispensaries and facilities to purchase cannabis for their treatment. These items are usually expensive, and there is no insurance policy that can help in paying the expenses on sales of cannabis. According to an observational finding, people purchase products from Vireo Health Company. According to the company, a patient, usually on the first visit to a nearby dispensary, spends between $100 and $350.
Residential medical marijuana growth will facilitate many patients and make it easy for them to access cannabis. Once the regulation becomes official, individuals can cultivate six plants in their private living area.
The state Senator Diane Savino also passed remarks on the rules and regulations regarding medical marijuana. According to Daine Savino, the NY Cannabis board proposes the best policy. Diane appreciates Governor Kathy Hochul and the entire team of the board in addressing the issue of medical pot.
According to Diane, the matter regarding cannabis issuance for caregivers and certified patients has been long-standing. Fortunately, the board members address the topic swiftly.
The Road To Medical Marijuana Cultivation At Residents
In NY, recreational pot legislation approval occurred in March 2021. The Marijuana Regulation and Taxation Act was also approved. The decision by the Cannabis Board to legalize medical marijuana production is the first step to putting the Act in action.
The Act does give permission to cultivate pot for medical reasons once the Board puts rules and regulations in place. According to the previous decision, the board members were to provide practical policy within six months of recreational legalization. However, Governor Andrew Cuomo neglected to appoint the board members, so the deadline passed.
Things move forward in a better way after Hochul takes control of the office and assembles it. After taking office in August, till the present, two meetings have already occurred. The Board discusses and implements rules regarding medical marijuana and recreational cannabis legalization.
According to Tremaine Wright, due to the quick action of governor Hochul and lawmakers, the medical pot program will soon expand. The expansion will lead to many other benefits and help in building a new industry. These activities will help in operating the medical marijuana industry safely. The Cannabis Control Board chair, in a statement, highlights the importance of medical pot regulations.
Originally covered on: Gothamist
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